The Secret Beyond Matter

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A Call to Peace: Understanding and Proper Morality in the Torah and the Gospel

The preceding section considered the Qur'an's calls by Allah for people to live in love and security, emphasizing that Islam is a religion of peace. We have seen how an understanding, reconciliatory and humane model that respects freedom of thought and attaches great importance to human rights will appear in a society that lives by the moral values of the Qur'an. Like the other Divine religions, Islam proposes a model society of compassionate, mature, moderate, mild, gentle, kind, sympathetic, loyal, understanding, forgiving people who avoid fighting and conflict. In the Qur'an Allah also commands believers to strive to bring such a society about.

The holy books

Divine books revealed before the Qur'an may have undergone a number of distortions, but they still contain sections that agree with it. These books are the Torah and the Gospels. Today, although mixed with human words and thus distorted, they make up the core of what is called the Bible. The Bible's two basic parts, the Old and the New Testaments, are based on the Torah and the Gospels respectively, including many other books and letters. Both the Torah and the Gospels favor love, peace and understanding, as well as prohibiting terror and oppression. In this section, we consider how Jews and Christians from all over the world must take action in light of these commands to oppose terrorism.

The Old Testament consists of five books comprising the Torah given to the Prophet Moses (peace be upon him), the Book of Psalms, and other writings by Jewish prophets and accounts of their lives. Jews believe in the Old Testament. Christians also believe in the New Testament, an addition to the Old. The New Testament consists of the four Gospels, the Acts of the Apostles following Jesus' death and a number of letters. According to the Qur'an, however, the Divine books of the Bible were distorted after being revealed to mankind. That means that both the Old and New Testaments are no longer the uncorrupted word of Allah. We should regard them as containing Divine elements that agree with the Qur'an, but also various human errors. When making use of the Torah and the Gospels, therefore, we need to consider whether their contents are in harmony with the Qur'an.

Statements from the Torah condemning terror and encouraging love and peace

Seek good and not evil, that you may live; so the Lord Allah of hosts
will be with you, as you have spoken. Hate evil, love good…
(Amos 5, 14-15)

As emphasized earlier, the Divine books sent down by Allah to guide His servants describe an ideal society full of love, peace, understanding and justice. In the Qur'an, for example, Allah describes the Torah revealed to the Jews as a guide:

We sent down the Torah containing guidance and light, and the prophets who had submitted themselves gave judgment by it for the Jews—as did their scholars and their rabbis, by what they had been allowed to preserve of Allah's Book to which they were witnesses... (Surat al-Ma'ida: 44)

Today, we can find part of the Torah's divine commandments in the Old Testament, directing people to avoid evil, tyranny, theft, corruption, falsehood and cruelty and to display proper morality. In fact, Allah states in the Qur'an that:

He [Allah] said, "Moses, I have chosen you over all mankind for My Message and My Word. Take what I have given you and be among the thankful." We wrote about everything for him on the Tablets as an admonition and making all things clear. "Seize hold of it vigorously and command your people to adopt the best in it. I will show you the home of the deviators!" (Surat al-A'raf:144-145)

All forms of violence and oppression are forbidden


The Torah describes in considerable detail the fate awaiting those who commit evil and want to spread it, and warns people against going down that road. Flying into a rage and harming others, trying to turn them away from the true path, shedding blood and quarrelling are all described as forms of behavior displeasing to Allah and which He has forbidden. He condemns all those who go down the path of evil and oppression, revealing that such people will never be saved. Some Torah accounts emphasize this:

Simeon and Levi are brothers; instruments of cruelty are in their dwelling place. Let not my soul enter their council; let not my honor be united to their assembly; for in their anger they slew a man, and in their self-will they hamstrung an ox. Cursed be their anger, for it is fierce; and their wrath, for it is cruel! (Genesis 49, 5-7)

But the wicked are like the troubled sea, when it cannot rest, whose waters cast up mire and dirt. "There is no peace," says my God, "for the wicked." (Isaiah 57, 20-21)

You children of Israel... "There is no truth or mercy or knowledge of God in the land. By swearing and lying, killing and stealing and committing adultery, they break all restraint, with bloodshed upon bloodshed. Therefore the land will mourn; and everyone who dwells there will waste away with the beasts of the field and the birds of the air; even the fish of the sea will be taken away. " Now let no man contend, or rebuke another; for your people are like those who contend with the priest. (Hosea 4, 1-4)

Gilead is a city of evildoers and defiled with blood. As bands of robbers lie in wait for a man, so the company of priests murder on the way to Shechem; surely they commit lewdness. (Hosea 6, 8-9)

The merciful man does good for his own soul, but he who is cruel troubles his own flesh... But he who sows righteousness will have a sure reward. As righteousness leads to life, so he who pursues evil pursues it to his own death... The wicked will not go unpunished; but the posterity of the righteous will be delivered. (Proverbs 11, 17-21)

People of the Book, kitap ehli

He has sent down the Book to you with truth, confirming what was there before it. And He sent down the Torah and the Gospel, previously, as guidance for mankind, and He has sent down the Furqan. Those who reject Allah's Signs will have a terrible punishment. Allah is Almighty, Exactor of Revenge.
(Surah Al'Imran: 3-4)

An ungodly man digs up evil, and it is on his lips like a burning fire. A perverse man sows strife, and a whisperer separates the best of friends. A violent man entices his neighbor, and leads him in a way that is not good... He who is slow to anger is better than the mighty. . . (Proverbs 16, 27-32)

The Lord is far from the wicked... (Proverbs 15, 29)

The Torah describes in considerable detail the deeds of people who did evil and acted tyrannically, making it clear that the wicked will receive their just deserts. But it also states that those who repent will be accepted as good, if they abide by Allah's religion:

Yet the house of Israel says, "The way of the Lord is not fair." O house of Israel, is it not My ways which are fair, and your ways which are not fair? When a righteous man turns away from his righteousness, commits iniquity, and dies in it, it is because of the iniquity which he has done that he dies. Again, when a wicked man turns away from the wickedness which he committed, and does what is lawful and right, he preserves himself alive. Because he considers and turns away from all the transgressions which he committed, he shall surely live; he shall not die. Yet the house of Israel says, "The way of the Lord is not fair." O house of Israel, is it not My ways which are fair, and your ways which are not fair? Therefore I will judge you, O house of Israel, every one according to his ways," says the Lord God. "Repent, and turn from all your transgressions, so that iniquity will not be your ruin. Cast away from you all the transgressions which you have committed, and get yourselves a new heart and a new spirit. For why should you die, O house of Israel? For I have no pleasure in the death of one who dies," says the Lord God. "Therefore turn and live!" (Ezekiel 18, 25-32)

... Thus says the Lord: "... I am fashioning a disaster and devising a plan against you. Return now every one from his evil way, and make your ways and your doings good." And they said, "That is hopeless! So we will walk according to our own plans, and we will every one obey the dictates of his evil heart." (Jeremiah 18, 11-12)

Do not be like your fathers, to whom the former prophets preached, saying, "Thus says the Lord of hosts: ‘Turn now from your evil ways and your evil deeds.'" But they did not hear nor heed Me," says the Lord. (Zechariah 1, 4)

It is forbidden to harm others

Torah, Jews

Many Torah commandments prohibit doing harm to others, killing, ruling without justice, or behaving unfairly.

You shall not murder. You shall not commit adultery. You shall not steal. You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor. You shall not covet your neighbor's house… (Exodus 20, 13-17)

You shall do no injustice in judgment … nor honor the person of the mighty. In righteousness you shall judge your neighbor. You shall not go about as a talebearer among your people; nor shall you take a stand against the life of your neighbor: I am the Lord... You shall not take vengeance, nor bear any grudge against the children of your people, but you shall love your neighbor as yourself: I am the Lord. (Leviticus 19, 15-18)

Lest innocent blood be shed in the midst of your land which the Lord your God is giving you as an inheritance, and thus guilt of bloodshed be upon you. (Deuteronomy 19, 10)

Deliver those who are drawn toward death, and hold back those stumbling to the slaughter. If you say, "Surely we did not know this," Does not He who weighs the hearts consider it? He who keeps your soul, does He not know it?.. (Proverbs 24, 11-12)

Do good to others


Just like Christians and Muslims, Jews have a duty to behave well towards others and to do good.

The Torah contains a number of statements commanding brotherhood and love, sacrifice and humility. Just like Muslims, Jews and Christians have been ordered to treat others well, to do good deeds, never to deviate from the path of righteousness and to be mild-mannered, understanding and forgiving. Some examples include:

Sow for yourselves righteousness; reap in mercy... You have plowed wickedness; you have reaped iniquity. You have eaten the fruit of lies, because you trusted in your own way, in the multitude of your mighty men... (Hosea 10, 12-13)

They hate the one who rebukes in the gate, and they abhor the one who speaks uprightly. Therefore, because you tread down the poor and take grain taxes from him, though you have built houses of hewn stone, yet you shall not dwell in them; you have planted pleasant vineyards, but you shall not drink wine from them. For I know your manifold transgressions and your mighty sins: Afflicting the just and taking bribes; diverting the poor from justice at the gate. Therefore the prudent keep silent at that time, for it is an evil time. Seek good and not evil, that you may live; so the Lord God of hosts will be with you, as you have spoken. Hate evil, love good; establish justice in the gate... (Amos 5, 10-15)

People are invited to conduct themselves well

He has shown you, O man, what is good; and what does the Lord require of you but to do justly, to love mercy, and to walk humbly with your God? (Micah 6, 8)

How long will you judge unjustly, and show partiality to the wicked?.. Defend the poor and fatherless; do justice to the afflicted and needy. Deliver the poor and needy; free them from the hand of the wicked. (Psalms 82, 2-4)

The integrity of the upright will guide them, but the perversity of the unfaithful will destroy them. Riches do not profit in the day of wrath, but righteousness delivers from death. The righteousness of the blameless [man] will direct his way aright, but the wicked will fall by his own wickedness. The righteousness of the upright will deliver them, but the unfaithful will be caught by their lust. (Proverbs 11, 3-6)

The desire of the righteous is only good, but the expectation of the wicked is wrath. (Proverbs 11, 23)

He who earnestly seeks good finds favor, but trouble will come to him who seeks evil. (Proverbs 11, 27)

The way of the wicked is an abomination to the Lord, but He loves him who follows righteousness. (Proverbs 15, 9)

In mercy and truth atonement is provided for iniquity; and by the fear of the Lord one departs from evil. When a man's ways please the Lord, he makes even his enemies to be at peace with him. Better is a little with righteousness, than vast revenues without justice. (Proverbs 16, 6-8)

The highway of the upright is to depart from evil... (Proverbs 16, 17)

Do not be envious of evil men, nor desire to be with them; for their heart devises violence, and their lips talk of troublemaking. (Proverbs 24, 1-2)

Do not lie in wait, O wicked man, against the dwelling of the righteous; do not plunder his resting place; for a righteous man may fall seven times and rise again, but the wicked shall fall by calamity. Do not rejoice when your enemy falls, and do not let your heart be glad when he stumbles; lest the Lord see it... Do not fret because of evildoers, nor be envious of the wicked; for there will be no prospect for the evil man… (Proverbs 24, 15-20)

Man is commanded to be on the side of peace

Just like Muslims, Jews and Christians are commanded to avoid war and, in particular, to build peace. The book Hristiyan Ahlaki (Christian Morality) describes the kind of behavior a Christian should display, according to the Torah and Gospel, and sums this situation up in these terms: "The conflicts mentioned in the Holy Book are for the purposes of self-defense."23 It is forbidden to harm non-combatants, such as children, in the event of war.

Now it happened, as soon as the kingdom was established in his hand, that he executed his servants who had murdered his father the king. But the children of the murderers he did not execute, according to what is written in the Book of the Law of Moses, in which the Lord commanded, saying, "Fathers shall not be put to death for their children, nor shall children be put to death for their fathers..." ... (2 Kings 14, 5-6)

When the morality of religion prevails, according to the Torah


Whether you reveal a good act or keep it hidden, or pardon an evil act, Allah is Ever-Pardoning, All-Powerful.
(Surat an-Nisa: 149)

In the same way as Islam, Judaism and Christianity propose an exemplary model for society. With their strong faith, proper morality and scrupulous adherence to His verses, the messengers whom Allah sent as guides to Man are the very finest examples. For this reason, it is most important for believers to try to adopt the prophets' morality of as their own and to live similarly. If features of proper religious morality can spread throughout all mankind, the resulting atmosphere will closely resemble paradise. In such a society, the nightmares of anarchy and terror will disappear. Scrupulous adhering to Allah's commands, those who fear and believe in Him will eagerly avoid all forms of wickedness and mischief. The world will come to be filled with peaceful, moderate and understanding people. The Torah describes with a number of examples the life style that will emerge once the morality of religion prevails:

Then justice will dwell in the wilderness, and righteousness remain in the fruitful field. The work of righteousness will be peace, and the effect of righteousness, quietness and assurance forever. My people will dwell in a peaceful habitation, in secure dwellings, and in quiet resting places. (Isaiah 32, 16-18)

The wilderness and the wasteland shall be glad for them, and the desert shall rejoice and blossom as the rose; it shall blossom abundantly and rejoice, even with joy and singing… They shall see the glory of the Lord, the excellency of our God. Strengthen the weak hands, and make firm the feeble knees. Say to those who are fearful-hearted, "Be strong, do not fear!.. " Then the eyes of the blind shall be opened, and the ears of the deaf shall be unstopped. Then the lame shall leap like a deer, and the tongues of the dumb sing. For waters shall burst forth in the wilderness, and streams in the desert. (Isaiah 35, 1-6)

He who walks righteously and speaks uprightly, he who despises the gain of oppressions, who gestures with his hands, refusing bribes, who stops his ears from hearing of bloodshed, and shuts his eyes from seeing evil: He will dwell on high; his place of defense will be the fortress of rocks; bread will be given him, his water will be sure. (Isaiah 33, 15-16)

... To loose the bonds of wickedness, to undo the heavy burdens, to let the oppressed go free, and that you break every yoke? Is it not to share your bread with the hungry, and that you bring to your house the poor who are cast out; when you see the naked, that you cover him, and not hide yourself from your own flesh? Then your light shall break forth like the morning, your healing shall spring forth speedily, and your righteousness shall go before you; the glory of the Lord shall be your rear guard. Then you shall call, and the Lord will answer; you shall cry, and He will say, "Here I am." If you take away the yoke from your midst, the pointing of the finger, and speaking wickedness, if you extend your soul to the hungry and satisfy the afflicted soul, then your light shall dawn in the darkness, and your darkness shall be as the noonday. (Isaiah 58, 6-10)

The Gospel's recommendations for a world of love and peace

"... You shall love the LORD your God with all your heart, with all your soul,
and with all your mind." This is the first and great commandment.
And the second is like it: "You shall love your neighbor as yourself."
(Matthew 22, 37-39)

The Christian Gospel also contains many sections forbidding evil and oppression. People are called on to be forgiving, peaceful, understanding and compromising at all times. For these reasons, Christianity expects people to be understanding and joyful, and to refrain from conflict. Christians who abide by the religion revealed by the Prophet Jesus (peace be upon him) and who take his morality as their own are described in these terms in the Qur'an:

Then We sent Our Messengers following in their footsteps and sent ‘Isa (Jesus) son of Maryam (Mary) after them, giving him the Gospel. We put compassion and mercy in the hearts of those who followed him...
(Surat al-Hadid: 27)

Among the people of the Book, there are some who believe in Allah and in what has been sent down to you and what was sent down to them, and who are humble before Allah. They do not sell Allah's Signs for a paltry price. Such people will have their reward with their Lord…
(Surah Al'Imran: 199)

In another verse, Allah states, "... You will find the people most affectionate to those who believe are those who say, ‘We are Christians.' That is because some of them are priests and monks and because they are not arrogant,"
(Surat al-Ma'ida: 82) and praises Christians who turn to Allah with a sincere heart.

This positive morality of Christians is based on the commandments in the Bible that are compatible with the Qur'an. They are commanded to return good for evil, to love their fellow human beings unconditionally and to help the needy in the same manner. In fact, the Gospel uses a special word for the "unconditional love" that believers have for Our Lord and the faithful. One work dealing with Christianity describes the situation in these terms:

The word ‘agape' is used 116 times in 105 verses of the Gospel. It is a very high form of love. Agape Enterprises simply means "Love Enterprises." Our ministry reaches out to those who need, and have nothing to repay.24

A number of extracts from the Gospel command people to avoid evil and bloodshed and encourage them to display proper morality.

Unconditional love and compassion

weiling wall

Jews, Christians and Muslims who live by the morality commanded by Allah can live together in peace and security.

"A new commandment I give to you, that you love one another; as I have loved you, that you also love one another." (John 13, 34)

Let love be without hypocrisy. Abhor what is evil. Cling to what is good. Be kindly affectionate to one another with brotherly love, in honor giving preference to one another; not lagging in diligence, fervent in spirit, serving the Lord; rejoicing in hope, patient in tribulation, continuing steadfastly in prayer; distributing to the needs of the saints, given to hospitality. Bless those who persecute you; bless and do not curse. (Romans 12, 9-14)

Owe no one anything except to love one another, for he who loves another has fulfilled the law. For the commandments, "You shall not commit adultery," "You shall not murder," "You shall not steal," "You shall not bear false witness," "You shall not covet," and if there is any other commandment, are all summed up in this saying, namely, "You shall love your neighbor as yourself." Love does no harm to a neighbor; therefore love is the fulfillment of the law. (Romans 13, 8-10)

And may the Lord make you increase and abound in love to one another and to all, just as we do to you. (1 Thessalonians 3, 12)

Then one of the scribes came... and asked him, "Which is the first commandment of all?" Jesus answered him, "The first of all the commandments is: ‘Hear, O Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is one. And you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul, with all your mind, and with all your strength.' ... And the second, like it, is this: ‘You shall love your neighbor as yourself.' There is no other commandment greater than these."

So the scribe said to him, "Well said, Teacher. You have spoken the truth, for there is one God, and there is no other but He. And to love Him with all the heart, with all the understanding, with all the soul, and with all the strength, and to love one's neighbor as oneself, is more than all the whole burnt offerings and sacrifices." (Mark 12, 28-33)

Since you have purified your souls in obeying the truth through the Spirit in sincere love of the brethren, love one another fervently with a pure heart… (1 Peter 1, 22)

Those who believe, those who are Jews, and the Christians and Sabeans, all who believe in Allah and the Last Day and act rightly, will have their reward with their Lord. They will feel no fear and will know no sorrow.
(Surat al-Baqara: 62)

Finally, all of you be of one mind, having compassion for one another; love as brothers, be tender hearted, be courteous; not returning evil for evil or reviling for reviling, but on the contrary blessing, knowing that you were called to this, that you may inherit a blessing… (1 Peter 3, 8-10)

And above all things, have fervent love for one another, for "love will cover a multitude of sins." Be hospitable to one another without grumbling. As each one has received a gift, minister it to one another, as good stewards of the manifold grace of God. (1 Peter 4, 8-10)

Loving one's enemy


"You have heard that it was said, ‘You shall love your neighbor and hate your enemy.' But I say to you, love your enemies, bless those who curse you, do good to those who hate you, and pray for those who spitefully use you and persecute you. (Matthew 5, 43-44)

"But I say to you who hear: Love your enemies, do good to those who hate you, bless those who curse you, and pray for those who spitefully use you. To him who strikes you on the one cheek, offer the other also. And from him who takes away your cloak, do not withhold your tunic either. Give to everyone who asks of you. And from him who takes away your goods, do not ask for them back. And just as you want men to do to you, you also do to them likewise. But if you love those who love you, what credit is that to you? For even sinners love those who love them. And if you do good to those who do good to you, what credit is that to you? For even sinners do the same. And if you lend to those from whom you hope to receive back, what credit is that to you? For even sinners lend to sinners to receive as much back. But love your enemies, do good, and lend, hoping for nothing in return; and your reward will be great..." (Luke 6, 27-35)

A proper morality


The people of the Gospel should judge by what Allah sent down in it. Those who do not judge by what Allah has sent down, such people are deviators.
(Surat al-Ma'ida: 47)

"Blessed are the merciful, for they shall obtain mercy. Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God. Blessed are the peacemakers..." (Matthew 5, 7-9)

"Judge not, and you shall not be judged. Condemn not, and you shall not be condemned. Forgive, and you will be forgiven. Give, and it will be given to you: good measure, pressed down, shaken together, and running over will be put into your bosom. For with the same measure that you use, it will be measured back to you." (Luke 6, 37-38)

And why do you look at the speck [of sawdust] in your brother's eye, but do not perceive the plank in your own eye? Or how can you say to your brother, "‘Brother, let me remove the speck that is in your eye,"' when you yourself do not see the plank that is in your own eye? Hypocrite! First remove the plank from your own eye, and then you will see clearly to remove the speck that is in your brother's eye. (Luke 6, 41-42)

Therefore, as the elect of God, holy and beloved, put on tender mercies, kindness, humility, meekness, longsuffering; bearing with one another, and forgiving one another, if anyone has a complaint against another… But above all these things put on love, which is the bond of perfection. (Colossians 3, 12-14)

Finally, brethren, whatever things are true, whatever things are noble, whatever things are just, whatever things are pure, whatever things are lovely, whatever things are of good report, if there is any virtue and if there is anything praiseworthy—meditate on these things.  (Philippians 4, 8)

"... God resists the proud, but gives grace to the humble." Therefore submit to God. Resist the devil, and he will flee from you. Draw near to God, and He will draw near to you. Cleanse your hands, you sinners; and purify your hearts, you double-minded. Lament and mourn and weep! Let your laughter be turned to mourning and your joy to gloom. Humble yourselves in the sight of the Lord, and He will lift you up. Do not speak evil of one another, brethren. He who speaks evil of a brother and judges his brother, speaks evil of the law and judges the law. But if you judge the law, you are not a doer of the law but a judge. There is one Lawgiver, who is able to save and to destroy. Who are you to judge another? (James 4, 6-12)

Helping the needy and doing good deeds

"For a good tree does not bear bad fruit, nor does a bad tree bear good fruit. For every tree is known by its own fruit. For men do not gather figs from thorns, nor do they gather grapes from a bramble bush. A good man out of the good treasure of his heart brings forth good; and an evil man out of the evil treasure of his heart brings forth evil. For out of the abundance of the heart his mouth speaks." (Luke 6, 43-45)

But as for you, brethren, do not grow weary in doing good. And if anyone does not obey our word in this epistle, note that person and do not keep company with him, that he may be ashamed. Yet do not count him as an enemy, but admonish him as a brother. (2 Thessalonians 3, 13-15)


So the people asked him, saying, "What shall we do then?" He answered and said to them, "He who has two tunics, let him give to him who has none; and he who has food, let him do likewise." Then tax collectors also came to be baptized, and said to him, "Teacher, what shall we do?" And he said to them, "Collect no more than what is appointed for you." Likewise the soldiers asked him, saying, "And what shall we do?" So he said to them, "Do not intimidate anyone or accuse falsely, and be content with your wages." (Luke 3, 10-14)

I have shown you in every way, by laboring like this, that you must support the weak. And remember the words of Jesus, that He said, "It is more blessed to give than to receive." (Acts 20, 35)

Or ministry, let us use it in our ministering; he who teaches, in teaching; he who exhorts, in exhortation; he who gives, with liberality; he who leads, with diligence; he who shows mercy, with cheerfulness. (Romans 12, 7-8)

For this is the will of God, that by doing good you may put to silence the ignorance of foolish men - as free, yet not using liberty as a cloak for vice, but as bondservants of God. Honor all people. Love the brotherhood. Fear God… (1 Peter 2, 15-17)

For "He who would love life and see good days, let him refrain his tongue from evil, and his lips from speaking deceit. Let him turn away from evil and do good; let him seek peace and pursue it. For the eyes of the Lord are on the righteous, and His ears are open to their prayers; but the face of the Lord is against those who do evil." (1 Peter 3, 10-12)

Avoiding evil and advocating peace


Where do wars and fights come from among you? Do they not come from your desires for pleasure that war in your members? You lust and do not have. You murder and covet and cannot obtain. You fight and war. Yet you do not have because you do not ask. You ask and do not receive, because you ask amiss, that you may spend it on your pleasures. Adulterers and adulteresses! Do you not know that friendship with the world is enmity with God? Whoever therefore wants to be a friend of the world makes himself an enemy of God. (James 4, 1-4)

Let all bitterness, wrath, anger, clamor, and evil speaking be put away from you, with all malice. And be kind to one another, tender hearted, forgiving one another, just as God forgave you. (Ephesians 4, 31-32)

"Blessed are the peacemakers..." (Matthew 5, 9)

If it is possible, as much as depends on you, live peaceably with all men. Beloved, do not avenge yourselves... for it is written, "Vengeance is Mine, I will repay," says the Lord. Therefore "If your enemy is hungry, feed him; if he is thirsty, give him a drink; for in so doing you will heap coals of fire on his head." (Romans 12, 18-20)

Take heed to yourselves. If your brother sins against you, rebuke him; and if he repents, forgive him. (Luke 17, 3)



23. Hiristiyan Ahlaki, Turgay Ücal, Derek Malcolm, Ön Asya Basim Yayin Dagitim, Eylül 2000, s. 51

24. (emphasis added)

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