The Secret Beyond Matter

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Similarities Among Prophet Solomon (pbuh),
Dhu’l-Qarnayn (pbuh), and The Mahdi

Earlier, we considered various signs of the End Times in the Qur'an's account of Prophet Solomon's (pbuh) life. We said that, in the End Times, there would be a Golden Age in which Islamic morality would be foremost, and that this period would be ushered in by the Mahdi, who bears title al-Hadi (the one who guides).

mehmet nuri

Mehmet Nuri (Besiktasli). An inscription in the thuluth style, 1364 AH. "God hears and knows everything."

The hadiths of our Prophet (may God bless him and grant him peace) reveal signs of these two periods. And, when we compare them with what is happening today, we see many indications that we are living in the End Times and that the Golden Age is about to come.

The hadiths characterize the End Times as a treacherous period in which the number of wars and conflicts will increase and the world will be in general chaos because of the moral degeneration arising from people's rebellion against religious morality. Natural disasters will be everywhere, poverty will reach a previously unknown level, crime rates will soar, and murder and massacre will follow each other in an apparently endless succession. But this is only the first stage of the End Times; in the second stage, God will use the Mahdi to rescue people from this chaos.

Indeed, such events have happened numerous times in human history, for wars, earthquakes, and other natural disasters have been common. The same is true of moral degeneration, poverty, and hunger. What distinguishes the signs of the End Times from these events is that all of these signs will happen in the same period one after the other, and in the way described in the hadiths. Here we must give the glad tidings that this chaos will be temporary, for the coming of the Golden Age will bring this distressing period to an end.

new york times

December 9, 1991
With the Soviet Union's collapse, the bipolar world system that had existed since 1945 disappeared. This was also considered to be the beginning of devising a new world order.

The Golden Age will be a time when wars and conflicts will end, all irreligious ideologies that caused so much misery will be buried in the dark recesses of history, and the world will enjoy a period of justice and abundant blessings. Islamic morality will spread throughout the world, and people will stream toward religion. As we stated earlier, some of the hadiths describe this dominance of Islamic morality, such as when our Prophet (may God bless him and grant him peace) speaks of the similarities between this period and the reigns of Prophet Solomon (pbuh) and Dhu'l-Qarnayn (pbuh). Some of these are as follows:

The Mahdi will rule Earth, just like Dhu'l-Qarnayn (pbuh) and Prophet Solomon (pbuh). (Ibn Hajar al-Haythami, Al-Qawl al-Mukhtasar fi 'Alamat al-Mahdi al-Muntazar, p. 29)

There have been four kings on Earth: two were believers and two were unbelievers. The believers were Dhu'l-Qarnayn (pbuh) and Prophet Solomon (pbuh), and the unbelievers were Nimrod and Nebuchadnezzar II . There will be a fifth king, from the People of my House. (Ibn al-Jawzi)

In the following pages we will present some of the signs that we are in the End Times and that the blessed Golden Age is near. (For a detailed discussion of these signs, see Harun Yahya's The End Times and The Mahdi [USA, Khatoons. Inc., March 2004] and The Golden Age [Kuala Lumpur, A.S. NOORDEEN, 2003]

berlin wall 1989

The destruction of the Berlin Wall in 1989 symbolizes communism's collapse. One of the clearest proofs of the change in system revealed in the hadiths was when the people toppled and destroyed huge statues of Lenin, considered the most important communist ideologue. Time, April 8, 1996 (bottom right)

A man named Mahdi will come when the systems change…(Al-Muttaqi al-Hindi,Al-Burhan fi 'Alamat al-Mahdi Akhir al-Zaman, p. 14)

In this hadith, our Prophet (may God bless him and grant him peace) announced that the Mahdi will come during a period of changing systems. This probably refers to communism, which was widespread before collapsing in the late 1980s.

This atheistic philosophy, the product of materialist philosophy, was one of the main reasons for the bloody wars and massacres that marked the twentieth century. This ideology influenced large parts of Europe, Asia, South America, and Africa. Many countries were ruled by communist regimes for decades or were targeted by communist organizations. Communism was one of the reasons for the cold war, which continued from the late 1940s until the early 1990s, and for the cruelest massacres.

Besides fighting with other countries to extend their ideology, communists subjected their own people to great cruelty, mass executions, and massacre. Moreover, they put people to death in forced labor camps and killed them by starvation.

According to various historians' calculations, communist regimes were responsible for the deaths of 120 million people during the twentieth century. Most of these were not soldiers who died in battle, but were civilians murdered by communists. Tens of millions of men, women, old people, children, and babies lost their lives because of the communists' brutal savagery. Apart from this, millions of people were oppressed and forced to leave their homes and countries. Their lands and possessions were confiscated, and they were made to live every moment in fear of being killed, falsely arrested, or subjected to cruelty.

But toward the end of the twentieth century, these regimes, which seemed to be so strong and firm, began to lose their power and crumble one by one. The clearest symbol of this collapse was the tearing down of the Berlin Wall in 1989. Two years later, the world's largest and most powerful communist state—the Soviet Union—collapsed and the Eastern Bloc completely fell apart. Communist regimes from Africa to Central Asia collapsed one after another, the bipolar world order that had been firmly in place since 1945 disappeared, and, according to political commentators, a new world order replaced it. With these very surprising developments, the change of system mentioned in the hadith came about.

hafiz esad syria

The Syrian foreign minister says, "There is nothing going on in Syria." Assad's forces have begun oppressing the people.

At the end of time, their rulers will cause My people severe trouble in such a way that there will be no comfort for Muslims anywhere.(Al-Muttaqi al-Hindi,Al-Burhan fi 'Alamat al-Mahdi Akhir az-Zaman, p. 12)

This hadith indicates that before the Mahdi comes, rulers in some Muslim states will be far removed from religious morality, cruel and pitiless, or ineffective. Indeed, we can see this in such countries as Iraq, Afghanistan, Djibouti, Somalia, Tunisia, Libya, Ethiopia, and Syria. All of the Muslims in these countries are oppressed by their governments and subjected to difficulty and anxiety. They cannot live their religion freely and perform their prayers, and economic restrictions make their lives difficult. Below are some examples of what these people have experienced:

In Iraq, which lost about one million soldiers out of a total of three million during its war with Iran, the fascist Ba'thist dictator Saddam Hussein subjected the Iraqi people to incredible torture and oppression.

Since the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan in 1979, the country has been unstable and chaotic. Those in power have not been true representatives of Islam; rather, they founded an oppressive, intolerant, and pitiless system.

Between 1977-91, the tiny African country of Djibouti was ruled by a brutal regime that killed about 2 million Muslims and falsely arrested and tortured 7,000 people.

Between 1969-91, Major General Siad Barre led an oppressive regime in Somalia that targeted Muslims.

hafiz esad syria

1- During his 30 years in power, Hafez al-Assad carried out many massacres. In the city of Hama, 40,000 Muslims were brutally slaughtered in one day.

2- Turkey, February 15, 1982

3- The Soviet Union's 10-year occupation of Afghanistan left behind tens of thousands of dead and as many maimed.The bloody civil war that followed plunged Afghanistan into even greater chaos.

For 31 years, Tunisia was governed by the dictatorial regime of Habib Bourguiba. He declared himself president of the republic for life and, while in power, oppressed his subjects. For example, he tried to ban the fast of Ramadan on the grounds that it hurt national production figures.

During the 30 years of Hafez al-Assad's dictatorship, Syrian Muslims were subjected to various acts of cruelty. After some massacres, women were raped and men were tortured. The most atrocious example act of his rule was his decision to bomb and destroy Aleppo (city in northwestern Syria) when it revolted against his rule in early 1982. An untold number of people were killed.

saddam habib burgiba

1- Evrensel, March 13, 2001

2- For years, Saddam Hussein, implemented oppressive policies against the Iraqi people as well as against Muslims in neighboring countries.

3- While he was in power, Habib Bourguiba subjected Tunisia's Muslims to various forms of oppression.

4- The main characteristic of Somalia's governments was their anti-Islamic policies. The Somali civil war, which began during Siad Barre's rule, still continues.

Before the Hour comes, there will be a dusty and smoky tribulation like patches of dark night... (Sunan Abu Dawud)

september 11

The Arabic word translated here as tribulation is fitnah, which means something that completely alienates the human mind and heart from justice and right. It can also refer to war, savagery, confusion, conflict, and discord. This hadith says that dust and smoke will be left after this tribulation. This tribulation might be dark because why it occurs is not clear and it is unexpected.

When we look at it from this angle, this hadith probably refers to the 9/11 attack against New York and Washington, DC. As we saw on television and in newspapers, large clouds of dust followed these two acts of terrorism and wrapped the areas in smoke.

According to the official account, aircraft crashed into the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. The ensuing explosions, caused by their fuel, caused a great cloud to form. Smoke rose so high and spread so far that it could be seen throughout New York City and even in surrounding towns. The collapse of the World Trade Center and the nearby Building Number 7 after the explosions caused an even larger cloud of dust to cover all people in the affected area from head to toe.

This event is extremely important, because it occurred within the same period as other signs and is similar to what is described in the hadiths. Therefore, this most deplorable terrorist act may be the tribulation like patches of dark night mentioned as a sign of the Mahdi's coming.

11 september
11 september

Milliyet, September 12, 2001


september 11 newyork

As we can see in these pictures, the tribulation like patches of dark night described in the hadith was one of the main features of the 9/11 attack.

The Mahdi will only appear at a time when people are experiencing great fear and are afflicted by disturbances, civil war, and other disasters.(Reported by Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn 'Ali)

amnesty international

According to Amnesty International, Saddam Hussein brutally murdered 5,000 civilians in Halabja by bombing them with poison gas. Thousands of others were killed in similar attacks.

In the great majority of the hadiths in which our Prophet (may God bless him and grant him peace) mentions the Mahdi's coming, he stresses that the world will be in a state of general chaos, insecurity, and anxiety before he comes. Along with wars and conflicts, another characteristic of this period will be mass murder. The hadith given above draws our attention to this last characteristic.

Historians estimate that both world wars killed about 65 million people. They also estimate that during the twentieth century, more than 180 million people were killed for political reasons. This is an extraordinary figure when compared with similar figures for previous centuries. Until the twentieth century, most of the wars were largely local conflicts fought by opposing armies along a particular line or front. However, twentieth-century developments in weapons technology and military strategy, as well as the prevalence of ideologies that favored violence and bloodshed, made both the idea and the actual implementation of total war feasible. Now governments target not only the opposing army on the front, but also civilians behind the front. Sometimes, there is not even a front to separate the two sides. The twentieth century saw cities bombed (e.g., carpet bombing); chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons used; genocide campaigns implemented with impunity; and concentration and forced labor camps built to hold various unwanted groups of people.

Halabja, saddam

A scene from the massacre at Halabja, ordered by Saddam Hussein

If we look at recent history, we see many instances of massacres. For example, the Serbs targeted mainly Bosnian civilians. Thousands of people were killed, including women, children, and the elderly. The mass graves discovered after the war show the dimensions of the massacres in horrible detail.

The ethnic cleansing campaign directed against the Palestinians since the 1940s is a more long-term policy of mass murder. Instances of this policy, like the slaughters at Sabra and Shatila in 1982, overseen by now-prime minister Ariel Sharon of Israel, show the dimensions of this policy.

Africa has experienced frequent violent ethnic conflict in which thousands of people have lost their lives. In the spring of 1994, a conflict occurred between two large tribes—the Hutu and the Tutsi (slightly less than 15 percent of the nation's population)—that involved five countries—Zaire, Rwanda, Uganda, Burundi, and Tanzania. Nearly 800,000 people died in this ethnic conflict. Tens of thousands of refugees had to contend with destitution and epidemics in the forests; many of them died. Small children and babies were savagely slaughtered just because they belonged to another tribe.

The Mahdi will not emerge unless innocent people are massacred, and he will appear when those on Earth and up in the sky can no longer put up with such massacres. (Ibn Hajar al-Haythami,Al-Qawl al-Mukhtasar fi 'Alamat al-Mahdi al-Muntazar,p. 37)

hutu tutsi

1- A major act of genocide was perpetrated in Bosnia in front of everyone. Mass graves discovered later on show the real dimensions of this slaughter.

2- Left: The ongoing conflict in Chechnya has cost the lives of thousands of innocent people. Many people became refugees, some of whom died on the road.

3- Left: The ethnic conflict between Hutus and Tutsis left 800,000 people dead and seriously affected Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo), Rwanda, Uganda, Burundi, and Tanzania.

4- Above: During the second half of the twentieth century, some radical Zionists in the Israeli government conducted a merciless genocide against defenseless Palestinian people. The 1982 massacres at Sabra and Shatila, in which thousands of people died, is only one instance of this. This oppression is still going on today.

The hadiths concerning the Mahdi's coming speak of widespread slaughter in which innocent people are especially targeted. As we know, in almost every conflict today the basic target is innocent civilians, mainly women, children, and the elderly. Since civilians do not have the means to defend themselves, vast numbers of people are killed.

Besides these massacres, recent terrorist activities have focused on the mass eradication of unwanted people. Terrorism, which is designed to spread fear and dread among the general population, is an assault directed mainly against such public places as shopping centers, restaurants, cafes, and schools where people congregate.

terrorist attacks

Innocent people are always the targets of terrorist attacks, bombings, and acts of sabotage.

Corruption that no one can escape will occur and spread immediately to another place from where it stays.(Ibn Hajar al-Haythami, Al-Qawl al-Mukhtasar fi 'Alamat al-Mahdi al-Muntazar,pp. 21-22)

The above hadith speaks of a continuous long-term corruption that is global in extent. This Arabic word translated here as corruption, fitnah, means war, retribution, fighting, conflict. When we consider these meanings, we realize that this is an accurate description of the twentieth century, a time when war quickly spread to many nations, and when conflict, civil war, and chaos began and still continues today. Unfortunately, such violence still continues in the twenty-first century.

Year-by-Year Death Toll
war graphic

When we analyze the outbreaks of violence since the 1970s, we can see that when corruption ends in one place, it begins in another. During this period, conflict and civil strife occurred in many countries and regions: Bosnia-Herzegovina, Kosovo, Albania, Bulgaria, Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, Chechnya, Palestine, Israel, North Korea, Cambodia, Eastern Turkistan (Xinjiang [northwestern China]), Ethiopia, Somalia, Yemen, Uganda, Algeria, Rwanda, Mozambique, Angola, Congo, Liberia, Burundi, Sudan, Lebanon, Argentina, Northern Ireland, El Salvador, and Nicaragua.

statistics 01
war statistics

* Deaths Per Million

1- over 10.000
2- 1.000 to 10.000

3- 100 to 1.000
4- under 100

These graphs show the number of deaths that occurred as a result of war and other conflicts during the twentieth century. The top graph shows how many people died in various parts of the world between 1950 and 1975. The lower graph depicts a regional representation of how many people died throughout the world between 1975 and 2000.



1- One hadith says that when the End Times begin, there will be endless tribulation. The twentieth century was full of wars, conflicts, and massacres that smothered the whole world.
2- Tarih ve Medeniyet, July 1994
3- Turkiye, July 11, 2001

World history is full of war and conflict, but those that occurred in the twentieth century are unique. First, the numbers of dead far surpassed the total of deaths in all other centuries. Second, until then war had always regional and restricted to a certain region. But in the twentieth century, it spread over the entire world. It seems that, in the last century, no country or region was immune from conflict or terrorism.

time magazine

Third, the power of weapons is almost beyond human comprehension. The use of nuclear and chemical weapons inflicted unbelievable slaughter on the generation that lived through these conflicts, and succeeding generations continue to be affected by the long-term negative side effects. The first event that comes to mind in this regard is the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945.

wars, army

Today, one of the most threatening kinds of warfare is biological warfare. An example of this happened after the 9/11 terrorist attack, when letters containing the anthrax bacteria were sent to important addresses; to date, several people have died because of such letters.

In conclusion, it is likely that the corruption mentioned in this hadith consists of the wars, conflicts, chaos, and terrorism that began in the last century and continue into this one. All of these things may be signs that we are living in the End Times and that the Golden Age may be near.

God Almighty will send the Mahdi after despair has reached the point that people will say: "There is no Mahdi."(Narrated by Nu'aym ibn Hammad)

In the End Times, people will be full of pessimism, for seeing war, poverty, need, injustice, moral depravity, and epidemics all around them will cause them to lose their belief in the Mahdi's coming. Many Muslims will begin to believe that such problems will continue to be unsolvable, and so will lose their expectation of the coming Golden Age and the global prevalence of Islamic morality.

golden age

We see many examples of this spiritual state. For example, despite the many hadiths about the Mahdi's coming and the Golden Age's beauty, many people do not believe that such an age will come. But at a time when this pessimism is widespread, by God's grace the Golden Age will begin.

The poor will grow in number.(Amal ad-Din al-Qazwini,Mufid al-'Ulum wa Mubid al-Humum)

Three years before the Antichrist appears, there will be exceedingly stressful days and hunger will rule …(Muhammad ibn 'Abd ar-Rasul Barzanji,Al-Isha'ah li Ashrat as-Sa'ah, p. 220)


One of the most frequently mentioned subjects concerning the End Times is the global spread of hunger, poverty, and destitution. But this dark period will end with the Golden Age, and God will keep His promise.

Many hadiths speak of the hunger and poverty that will foretell the Mahdi's coming. Although hunger and destitution have existed throughout history, they will increase markedly around the world in the End Times.

Today, many people have nothing to eat or drink, live in unhealthy conditions, and have nowhere to stay. This situation is widespread in the Third World and, to a lesser extent, in America and Europe. While a small minority of people lives in luxury, billions of others live on the brink of starvation. In an article, an Oxfam official described the world situation in the following words:

As we enter the new millennium, we bring with us a world in which 35,000 children die each day from causes related to poverty. That is one child dying every 2.5 seconds. We face a world in which the total number of people below the poverty line is growing each year, and now stands at around 1.5 billion.

This is greater than the population of China, four times the entire population of the European Union.

… This is a world in which the gap between rich and poor is accelerating. United Nations figures show that the richest 20% of people owned 30 times the wealth of the poorest 20% in 1960. In the next 37 years, the rich did very nicely, ending up in 1997 with 74 times as much wealth as the poorest 20%.


The frequent media accounts of hunger and destitution is a sign of the End Times. Even in the twenty-first century, many people still struggle with hunger and poverty. God willing, this situation will end with the beginning of the Golden Age.

… The combined wealth of the world's richest three families (Bill Gates, the Waltons, and the Sultan of Brunei) is more than the annual income of 600 million people in the least developed countries. Moreover, in more than 80 of the world's poorest countries, per capita income is lower today than it was 10 years ago.13

hunger, famine

One of the first signs of the End Times will be the terrible hunger and famine that will happen before the plenty and abundance of the Golden Age. In this period, people will not even have a loaf of bread to eat and many will die of starvation. But when the Golden Age begins, by God's mercy, human beings will have a wealth and abundance never before seen in the world.

When the Golden Age begins, all of these problems will disappear. Hunger, poverty, and destitution will be replaced by wealth and abundance. No one will be in need, because religion will be lived as God describes in the Qur'an and everyone will share what they have, for "beggars and the destitute received a due share of their wealth"> (Qur'an, 51:19). In a society that lives according to Islamic morality, there can be no destitute people, for believers will strive to avoid the state that God describes in the following terms:"He used not to believe in God the Magnificent, nor did he urge the feeding of the poor. Therefore, here today he has no friend"(Qur'an, 69:33-35). This will be the means whereby social justice, happiness, and abundance will be established in society.

People will prosper until the ninety-fifth year, that is, their business will prosper. In the ninety-seventh and the ninety-ninth year, their possessions will go to waste.(Ibn Hajar al-Haythami, Al-Qawl al-Mukhtasar fi 'Alamat al-Mahdi al-Muntazar, p. 54)

This hadith gives us some details about the state of the economy before the Golden Age dawns.

middle east

1 - The Black Sea
2 - The Mediterranean Sea
3 - The Red Sea
4 - Syria
5 - Lebanon

6 - Jordan
7 - Hijaz
8 - Saudi Arabia
9 - Egypt

The countries to the left of the Hijaz are known as the region of Sham (Damascus).

The ninety-fifth year probably refers to 1995, a year in which people were comparatively well-off and living conditions were fairly easy. The assertion that business will prosper means that people will have enough income to have a good living standard and have enough money to buy property. But during 1997-99, the economy worsened and poverty and need increased. In these years, property lost its value. We can see that this actually happened in Argentina, where the situation is still serious and continuing.

The inhabitants of Egypt and Sham [Damascus] will kill their ruler and his commands...(Ibn Hajar al-Haythami,Al-Qawl al-Mukhtasar fi 'Alamat al-Mahdi al-Muntazar, p. 49)

When we look at Egypt's recent history, we see that its ruler was killed: Anwar al-Sadat, who ruled the country from 1970-1981.

Sadat was assassinated in 1981 by his opponents while presiding over an official parade. Other Egyptian leaders who have been assassinated are Prime Minister Boutros Ghali (1910),

Prime Minister Ahmed Maher Pasha (1945), and Prime Minister Mahmoud Nokrashi Pasha (1948).

The word sham does not refer just to Damascus. In Arabic, sham means left and refers to the cities located to the left of Hijaz (where Makkah and Madinah are located).

14 Many leaders in this region have been assassinated, among them Syrian prime minister Salah al-Din Bitar (1920),

Syrian prime minister Droubi Pasha (1921), Syrian premier Muhsin al-Barazi (1949), King Abdullah of Jordan (1951), and Lebanese Phalangist leader Bashir Jemayel, after a bomb attack in 1982.15

Having discussed some of the signs foretelling the Mahdi's coming, we now turn our attention to various minor signs that will occur when the End Times begin. As they will happen before the Golden Age, they also can be regarded as signs of the Mahdi's coming.

enver sedat jordan king

1- King Abdullah of Jordan, assassinated in 1951 while praying in the al- Aqsa Mosque.
2- Egyptian president Anwar al-Sadat, assassinated in 1981.
3- October 7, 1981
4- Sadat was killed during an official parade in 1981. The photo at the right records this event. Above, a New York Times report on the assassination

When we examine the events mentioned in the hadiths containing this information, we see that each of them is being experienced in today's societies. While these events may appear negative at first sight, in reality they are forerunners of an age of abundance, plenty, happiness, peace, and security. After these events, God will inaugurate an age of light for all humanity. This is God's promise, which He has announced to His believers:


We wrote down in the Zabur, after the Reminder came: "It is My servants who are righteous who will inherit the earth." (Qur'an, 21:105)

And [He will give you] other things you love: support from God and imminent victory. Give good news to the believers! (Qur'an, 61:13)

A time when booty is in the hands of certain people, trust is seen as booty, giving alms is seen as a heavy burden…(Muhammad ibn ‘Abd ar-Rasul Barzanji, Al-Isha'ah li Ashrat as-Sa'ah, p. 114)

Goods entrusted to one being regarded as booty, and the giving of alms being regarded as a loan (which is hard to repay)... (Muhammad ibn 'Abd ar-Rasul Barzanji,Al-Isha'ah li Ashrat as-Sa'ah,, p. 139)

The Hour will come when adultery becomes widespread. (Al-Haythami, Kitab al-Fitan)

The Last Hour will not be established until they [wicked people] commit adultery on the roads [public ways]. (Muhammad ibn 'Abd ar-Rasul Barzanji,Al-Isha'ah li Ashrat as-Sa'ah,, p. 140)


The rebuilding of the ruined places in the world, and the ruination of constructed places are signs and portents of Doomsday. (Ismail Mutlu, Signs of the Last Day[Istanbul: Mutlu Publications,1999], p. 138)

When developed places are ruined, then Doomsday is no further away than the distance between your two fingers.(Muhammad ibn 'Abd ar-Rasul Barzanji, Al-Isha'ah li Ashrat as-Sa'ah, p. 143)


1- Left: A section of Miami ruined by Hurricane Andrew in 1991. Above: A view of Miami today.
2- Below: The 1906 earthquake in San Francisco killed 3,000 people and caused a fire that burned a large part of the city. Right: A view of San Francisco today.
3- Left: The devastation of Tokyo in 1923 by a fire that broke out after an earthquake measuring 8.3 on the Richter scale. Below: Modern Tokyo.

People will compete with one another in constructing high buildings. (Sahih Bukhari)

Doomsday will not come until a person kills his brother.(Muhammad ibn ‘Abd ar-Rasul Barzanji,Al-Isha'ah li Ashrat as-Sa'ah, p. 141)

high tower

Most modern cities are composed of skyscrapers. The prediction in the hadith has come true.

The community of the faithful will be on a favorable path until they encounter three things: goodness disappears, immoral children grow in number, and essekkarun appears amongst them… They asked: "What is essekkarun"? They answered: "A generation that will emerge in the End Times, among whom greetings will be regarded as vile oaths.(Muhammad ibn 'Abd ar-Rasul Barzanji,Al-Isha'ah li Ashrat as-Sa'ah,, pp. 141-42)

… everyone complaining about decreased earnings ... the rich respected for their money ...(Muhammad ibn 'Abd ar-Rasul Barzanji,Al-Isha'ah li Ashrat as-Sa'ah,, p. 146)

hutu tutsi

The conflict in Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo) between the Hutus and the Tutsis fleeing the violence in neighboring Rwanda, has been going on for years. This conflict has caused the death of countless children.

… stagnation in the markets, a reduction in earnings…(Muhammad ibn 'Abd ar-Rasul Barzanji,Al-Isha'ah li Ashrat as-Sa'ah,, p. 148)

… business being slack. Everyone will complain: "I cannot sell, buy or earn money."(Muhammad ibn 'Abd ar-Rasul Barzanji,Al-Isha'ah li Ashrat as-Sa'ah,, p. 152)


Today, unemployment, low wages, and earnings below the poverty line are problems found in many countries.

Doomsday will not come until your leaders kill and the wicked inherit your world.(Ibid., p. 141)


1- 20th Chronicle, s.127
2- November 23, 1963

3- 20th Chronicle, s.335
4- 20th Chronicle, s.131

In the recent past, several leaders have been assassinated, such as American president John F. Kennedy (1963), Swedish Prime Minister Olof Palme (1986), King Alexander I of Yugoslavia (1934), and Pakistani President Muhammad Zia ul-Haq (1988).

The Golden Age

As we mentioned earlier, the appearance of these signs one after another gives believers the good tidings of the coming Golden Age.

Just as in Prophet Solomon's (pbuh) day, the Golden Age will be a time of wealth, splendor, beauty, happiness, and peace. Life on Earth will be like Paradise, because the Qur'an's morality will prevail throughout the world. Doubtless, this is a grace and good tidings from God for the last period of world history. He announces in the following verse that:

God has promised those of you who believe and do right actions that He will make them successors in the land, as He made those before them successors; will firmly establish for them their religion, with which He is pleased; and give them, in place of their fear, security. "They worship Me, not associating anything with Me." Any who do not believe after that, such people are deviators. (Qur'an, 24:55)

The Times of Prophet Solomon (pbuh), Dhu'l-Qarnayn (pbuh), and the Golden Age


Say:"Truth has come falsehood has vanished.Falsehood is always bound to vanish.(Qur'an,17:81)

… We hurl the truth against falsehood and it cuts hight through it …(Qur'an,21:18)

Up to this point, we have focused on Prophet Solomon's (pbuh) exemplary life and moral character, faithfulness toward God, and how he turned toward Him in everything he did. We have mentioned his courage, just dealings, and tolerance, as well as his forgiving, courteous, welcoming, peace-loving, and noble character. In addition, we have studied his methods of state administration and intelligence gathering, along with his diplomatic successes, public building, and artistic undertakings. We then looked at Dhu'l-Qarnayn (pbuh), a faithful servant who shared many similarities with Prophet Solomon (pbuh).

All of this information shows that Prophet Solomon (pbuh) was engaged in artistic and scientific work about which we know nothing and cannot even guess. This great leader and Prophet made extraordinary advancements in various scientific and other fields in his day. Dhu'l-Qarnayn (pbuh) also established dominion over a vast territory and governed societies with superior knowledge.

Another thing we considered while examining these accounts was the signs of the End Times that they contain. As we know from the hadiths, the Golden Age will be a time of extraordinary development in science, art, and technology, just as in the days of Prophet Solomon (pbuh) and Dhu'l-Qarnayn (pbuh).

Although the other two periods have passed and the Golden Age is still to come, all of them are realities announced to us by God.

The term Mahdism connotes the establishment of these two leaders' superior morality on a new, different, and broader foundation. In other words, the spirituality, logic, intelligence, and social manifestation of Prophet Solomon (pbuh) and Dhu'l-Qarnayn (pbuh) will reveal themselves in society in the End Times.

These three periods are characterized by the prevalence of Islamic morality throughout their realms. God approves of all three of these periods. The times of Nebuchadnezzar II, Nimrod, and Pharaoh were governed by Satan and therefore were irreligious periods. Just as God made Islamic morality prevail after these periods, in the End Times our Lord will let His servants live under the rule of that same morality. This will be the Golden Age, which will be characterized by happiness, well-being, love, brotherhood, loyalty, peace, self-sacrifice, humanity, and helpfulness. Below are some examples of the similarity between the three times.

The Mahdi Will Rule the World

Prophet Solomon (pbuh) and Dhu'l-Qarnayn (pbuh), who made Islamic morality prevail in their vast territories and had mighty armies, have much in common with the Golden Age. For example, during the Golden Age Islamic morality will prevail throughout the world, streams of people will become Muslims, godless ideologies will be wiped off the face of the Earth, and religion will be lived as it was in the time of our Prophet (may God bless him and grant him peace). Some hadiths describe this era, among them:

The Mahdi will own the entire world. (Al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, Al-Burhan fi 'Alamat al-Mahdi Akhir al-Zaman, p. 10)

The Mahdi will invade all the places between East and West. (Ibn Hajar al-Haythami, Al-Qawl al-Mukhtasar fi 'Alamat al-Mahdi al-Muntazar, p. 56)

The Mahdi's Special Knowledge and the Great Knowledge Granted to Prophet Solomon (pbuh) and Dhu'l-Qarnayn (pbuh)

We have already seen the various kinds of knowledge that God gave Prophet Solomon (pbuh): how to rule over jinns and demons, speak to birds, hear and understand ants talking among themselves, and subject the winds and copper to his command. All of these wondrous characteristics distinguished him from other people. Of Dhu'l-Qarnayn (pbuh), the Qur'an says: "We had encompassed that he had ‘knowledge comprising essence' near him [or all that he had in knowledge]" (Qur'an, 18:91). From this, we know that he was a servant to whom God granted knowledge.

Like these two leaders, the Mahdi also will have special knowledge. In his Mevzuatu'l ulum (11:246), Taskopruluzade Ahmet Efendi writes that the Mahdi will possess 'ilm al-jafr (the art of divination through numbers). Another hadith reveals the following:

He is called the Mahdi because he is given guidance for a situation unknown to anyone. (Al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, Al-Burhan fi 'Alamat al-Mahdi Akhir al-Zaman, p. 77)

Our Prophet (may God bless him and grant him peace) also says that the Mahdi, like Prophet Solomon (pbuh), will know the language of animals and have power over human beings and jinns.

The Mahdi speaks the language of birds and other animals. Therefore, his justice will manifest itself over all people and jinns. (Muhammad ibn ‘Abd ar-Rasul Barzanji, Al-Isha'ah li Ashrat as-Sa'ah, p. 188)

Scientific and Technological Developments

As we learn from the Qur'an, Prophet Solomon's (pbuh) and Dhu'l-Qarnayn's (pbuh) times witnessed great and unusual scientific and technological advancements. The hadiths describing the Golden Age present a similar situation.


The Golden Age will be a time of great scientific, technological, communication, and medical advancements. Every new development will serve humanity and make life easier in all respects. One sign of this in the hadiths is as follows:

The end of humanity's whip will speak to him. (Hadith at-Tirmidhi)

This hadith probably refers to the cell phone, one of the most common means of communication today. (God knows the truth.)

The hadiths also mention another important technological development:

People will reap 700 measures of wheat for every one they sow … People will throw down a few handfuls of seeds and reap 700 handfuls … Although much rain will fall, none will be wasted. (Ibn Hajar al-Haythami, Al-Qawl al-Mukhtasar fi 'Alamat al-Mahdi al-Muntazar, p. 43)

This hadith may be speaking of modern agriculture, which is characterized by the use of machines. In former times, sowing seeds and harvesting by hand were extremely tiring and time-consuming chores. But technological advances have enabled great developments in agriculture, and modern machines have made both sowing and harvesting much easier. Improving seed stocks has increased agricultural production. As technology advances, new methods are developed to increase productivity.


Many hadiths dealing with the End Times refer to that period's technological developments, one of which is mentioned specifically: high agricultural yields due to modern technology.

In the Mahdi's time, many important agricultural and technological advances will make the lives of farmers much easier.


Our Word was given before to Our servants, the Messengers, that they would certainly be helped. It is Our army that will be victorious. (Qur'an,37:171-173)


Today, agricultural technology can make even desert areas green and productive.

The Importance of Loving Animals

The Qur'an gives some information about Prophet Solomon's (pbuh) love and compassion for animals. For example, he loved horses and did not want to harm ants.

In the Golden Age, love for animals will be encouraged. The hadiths reveal that there will be places in which every kind of animal can be easily watched and admired. Here are some examples:

... He will say to the sheep to go to the pasture and eat. The animals will pass through the crops, but will not eat even a single stalk of wheat. Snakes and scorpions will not hurt anyone, and wild animals will sit at our doors but not harm anyone. (Muhammad ibn 'Abd ar-Rasul Barzanji, Al-Isha'ah li Ashrat as-Sa'ah, p. 245)

Snakes will get along with children, cows will get along with lions. (Ibn Hajar al-Haythami, Al-Qawl al-Mukhtasar fi 'Alamat al-Mahdi al-Muntazar, p. 64)

These hadiths indicate another similarity between the time of Prophet Solomon (pbuh) and the Golden Age: humanity's dominion over animals. Just as Prophet Solomon (pbuh) established his rule over birds and other animals, in the Golden Age all animals, including beasts of prey, will be under humanity's dominion and thus rendered harmless to people.

Working for Peace and Using Diplomacy

Prophet Solomon's (pbuh) relations with neighboring countries were tolerant, forgiving, and peaceful, for he preferred diplomacy to war and applied democratic methods. He established a superior culture and founded his rule on diplomacy, art, and culture. Even though he had invincible armies, he did not use military might. Dhu'l-Qarnayn (pbuh), known to those around him as a man who opposed corruption and dissension, was a leader who brought peace and well-being to his people. From this point of view, their times were very similar to that of the Golden Age.

In the Golden Age, people will become Muslims of their own volition, the world will be dominated by Islamic morality, and war will become unnecessary.

No one will be awakened from their sleep or have a bleeding nose. (Ibn Hajar al-Haythami, Al-Qawl al-Mukhtasar fi 'Alamat al-Mahdi al-Muntazar, p. 42)

The Mahdi will follow the way of the Prophet. He will not wake up a sleeping person or shed blood. (Muhammad ibn ‘Abd ar-Rasul Barzanji, Al-Isha'ah li Ashrat as-Sa'ah, p. 163)

The hadiths state that the Mahdi will make Islamic morality prevail all over the world by peaceful means through a great cultural initiative. At that time, God willing, the following verses will be fulfilled:

When God's help and victory have arrived, and you have seen people entering God's religion in droves, then glorify your Lord's praise and ask His forgiveness. He is the Ever-Returning. (Qur'an, 110:1-3)

Inviting People to Religious Morality

Prophet Solomon's (pbuh) quick and intelligent decisions make him a good example for all believers. His letter to the Queen of Saba, inviting her and her people to true belief, shows his powers of communication. Placing great importance on quick decisions, he employed a knowledgeable person to bring him her throne. In order to stop the corruption of Gog and Magog among a people who were located far from his kingdom, Dhu'l-Qarnayn (pbuh) quickly built a barricade strong enough to stand until the end of the world. This showed his strength and power of reason. In these respects, the Golden Age will be very similar to the times of these two noble men.

In addition, people will flock to Islam, and rapid and comprehensive efforts will be made to facilitate this movement. Societies will adopt Islamic morality, godless ideologies will be quickly and permanently removed, and every kind of oppression will pass into the dark depths of history. With regard to this, the great Islamic scholar, Muhyiddin ibn al-'Arabi, wrote:

God will give the Mahdi so much power that he will remove cruelty from the world overnight, religion will be established, and Islam will be revived. The Mahdi will restore lost value to it [Islam], and it will come to life after its apparent demise … Ignorant people, misers, and cowards alike will become very knowledgeable, generous, and brave … They will practice religion as in the time of Prophet Muhammad (may God bless him and grant him peace)… (Muhyiddin ibn al-'Arabi, Futuhat al Makkiyah, Bab 66, "Signs of the End Times," p. 186)


When God's victory have arrived and you have seen people entering God's religion in droves then,glorify your Lord's praise and ask His forgiveness.He is the Ever-Returning. (Qur'an,110:1-3)

The Importance Given to Building

Prophet Solomon (pbuh) placed great importance on public building. As we saw earlier, he used the jinns and demons under his command to construct high arches, statues, huge dishes, and vats. Everyone who saw his palace, including the Queen of Saba, was amazed. Dhu'l-Qarnayn (pbuh) also used a very effective construction technique to build the barricade mentioned above, so that, unless God wills, it will never fall.

views of the river

God haswiritten: "I will be victorious ,I and my Messengers." God is Most Almighty. (Qur'an,58:21)

The hadiths also allude to the great importance of construction in the Golden Age. In this period, cities will attain a high level of civilization, and their people will live in happiness and peace. One of these hadiths is as follows:

The Mahdi works in the construction of Constantinople and other places. (Ibn Hajar al-Haythami, Al-Qawl al-Mukhtasar fi 'Alamat al-Mahdi al-Muntazar, p. 40)

Wealth and Splendor Used to Benefit Islam and Gain God's Good Approval

Prophet Solomon (pbuh) used his wealth to proclaim God's religion and spread Islamic morality in his realm. Especially in the cities that he conquered, he invited the people to believe in God and submit to Him. His letter to the Queen of Saba is an important proof of this. And Dhu'l-Qarnayn (pbuh), who said: "The power my Lord has granted me is better than that…"(Qur'an, 18:95), was blessed by God with stable political power, which he used to rid his realm of corruption.

In the Golden Age, people will enjoy great wealth, well-being, and comfort. The Mahdi will use the world's wealth to make God's religion supreme and establish peace and high moral standards throughout his realm. He will do many things that the world has never seen before, soften people's hearts toward Islamic morality, and cause it to prevail within a short time. For example:

There will be a Mahdi among the people. God will send him to make people rich. People will have comfort and good fortune, animals will have plenty to eat, and the soil will bring forth plants… (Al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, Al-Burhan fi 'Alamat al-Mahdi Akhir az-Zaman, p. 15)

Before allegiance, people will flock to it, and everyone who goes there will enjoy the divine plenty. (Ibn Hajar al-Haythami, Al-Qawl al-Mukhtasar fi 'Alamat al-Mahdi al-Muntazar, p. 25)


Say;"O God,Master of the Kingdom!You give sovereignty to whoever You will,You take sovereignty from whoever You will..."(Qur'an,3:26)

"Earth belongs to God.He bequeatsh it to any of His servants he wills.The successful outcome is for those who guard against evil." (Qur'an, 7:128)

Plenty and Abundance


We can understand from the Qur'an that Prophet Solomon's (pbuh) time was characterized by great wealth and that the people lived comfortable lives. His palace was splendid, he had a mighty army, and he ruled a vast domain.

The Golden Age's plenty and abundance will be like that in Prophet Solomon's (pbuh) time. People will be given whatever they want and however much they want; even the birds will be happy with the Mahdi's rule. Many hadiths describe in great detail this plenty, abundance, and well-being, among them those given below:

A time will come when a person, withalms of gold in his hand, will go around, finding no one [in need] who is willing to receive them. (Mukhtasar Tazkirah Qurtubi)

Then will my ummah be blessed, the number of animals will increase, and the land will bear its fruits. (Ibn Hajar al-Haythami, Al-Qawl al-Mukhtasar fi 'Alamat al-Mahdi al-Muntazar, p. 26)

Possessions will be in abundance then, flowing like water. Yet no one will (condescend) to take any. (Mukhtasar Tazkirah Qurtubi)

During this [period], my ummah [people] will lead a kind of comfortable and carefree life that they have never known before. [The land] will bring forth its yield and will not hold anything back... (Sunan Ibn Majah)

The land will turn like a silver tray growing vegetation... (Sunan Ibn Majah)


So they returned with blessings and bounty from God, and no evil touched them. They pursued the pleasure of God. God's favor is indeed immense. (Qur'an, 3:174)

Justice and Tolerance

Prophet Solomon (pbuh) ruled in a tolerant and democratic manner. This will also be the case in the Golden Age, when Islamic morality will dominate and the world will be tolerant and at peace. People will be treated with compassion and mercy, and people of every religion will live in happiness and security. The world's wealth will be distributed equally, and poverty and need will disappear. Here are some relevant hadiths:

The Mahdi will bring justice and sovereignty to a world full of cruelty and injustice. (Muhammad ibn ‘Abd ar-Rasul Barzanji, Al-Isha'ah li Ashrat as-Sa'ah, p. 305)

His justice will fill every place… (Ibn Hajar Haythami, Al-Qawl al-Mukhtasar fi 'Alamat al-Mahdi al-Muntazar, p. 20)

A man from my family [Ahl al-Bayt] appears to fill Earth with justice, just as it has been filled with corruption. So whoever reaches that [time] ought to come to them, even if crawling on the ice/snow, since among them is the vicegerent of God [khalifat Allah] al-Mahdi. (Sunan Ibn Majah)

In his time, the goodness of good people will increase, and goodness will even be shown to bad people. (Al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, Al-Burhan fi 'Alamat al-Mahdi Akhir az-Zaman, p. 17)

All nations will open their gates to him ... Security and tranquility will reign over Earth. (Muhammad ibn 'Abd ar-Rasul Barzanji, Al-Isha'ah li Ashrat as-Sa'ah, p. 164)

A calligraphic inscription in the jali-thuluth script from 1280 AH: The fear of God is the beginning of wisdom. Right: An inscription in the naskhi style by Sayyid Abdullah of the first verses of Surat al-An'am.


So they returned with blessings and bounty from God, and no evil touched them. They pursued the pleasure of God. God's favor is indeed immense. (Qur'an, 3:174)


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